This disk was directed to the east so that it was touched by the first rays of the rising sun.
The borders of all parts of the empire converged in its golden capital, Cusco. Here originated the four most important military highways of the empire, which led to the four parts of the state. [four]
The question arises: why were the Incas able to create a well-established giant machine of the empire, surpassing other peoples of South America? The fact is that the success of the Incas was rooted in the extraordinary organizational talents of the “sons of the sun” and were the result of an almost schoolly pedantic sequence in achieving everyone’s participation in common affairs.
Man became the cog of the mechanism of state activity, and no subject of the empire was forgotten by its ruler. No one was to be left out. Everyone had to perform two main tasks, addressed by the rulers of the empire to every citizen: to work for the good of the state and to perform military duty. [four]
Numerous control apparatus of the Inca government ensured that ordinary people – citizens of the empire – these almost powerless cogs of such a perfect mechanism – honestly performed their duties to the state. Four “quarters of the empire” were ruled by governors who were almost always relatives of the ruling Inca. Together with several other dignitaries, they formed the state council of the country, which could express its proposals and ideas to the Incas. The final decision, however, was made by the Incas themselves. From the family of the ruling Inca was always appointed and the High Priest, who sat at the head of the priesthood.
One of the Incas, Tupac Yupanqui, was able to put into practice the “doctrine” that the whole world, all peoples, had to unite under the wise rule of the Incas. That is why he conducted a series of grand military campaigns, as a result of which he reached the maximum possible for the Indians of Peru.
From now on, the sword of the Incas shone everywhere: in the northern and southern parts of South America, in the jungles of the Maranhão River and on the shores of the Pacific Ocean. Tupac Yupanka can probably be compared only with the only commander of the Old World – Alexander the Great. As a result of numerous military campaigns, he implemented his father’s idea of world domination, and during his reign ended the military expansion of the Incas.
In the South American empire, gold played an exceptional role, performing in this “golden country” a variety of functions, except for one – it was not a means of payment. The Incas did well without money, because one of the basic principles of their society was the principle of self-sufficiency. The whole empire, including the alyu and the province, was a single subsistence economy. However, there was also foreign trade, which provided the privileged strata of society with various luxuries, inaccessible or even forbidden to the common people. [four]
In the Inca Empire, the living standards of the people and the ruling class were diametrically opposed. If the standard of living of the nobles was high enough, the common Incas – very low. An ordinary, personally free inhabitant of the empire had only a living wage. He ate twice a day dishes of potatoes and corn, sometimes guinea pig meat. The clothes were just as monotonous: men’s short trousers and sleeveless shirts, long woolen dresses, and women’s llama sandals on their feet. Indian families lived in primitive dwellings without windows and any furniture. [four]
There were ten age categories of citizens in the empire. Men up to the first three classes included children under 9 years of age; the fourth group included boys from 9 to 12 years old, the fifth group included boys from 12 to 18 years old. These young people mainly grazed cattle. The sixth grade included young men between the ages of 18 and 25 who had served in the military and were couriers to the empire’s famous postal service.
The most thorough and largest age category was the seventh, which consisted of men aged 25 to 50, because they were the ones who paid taxes to the state. The aristocracy and the priesthood of the empire did not pay taxes. Virtually the entire state system was maintained by the representatives of the seventh category, because they paid taxes in the form of labor and products. However, the men worked, and when they moved to the eighth grade, which included men between the ages of 50 and 80, their work was much easier – they raised the children of their village.
Men of even older age belonged to the category of “deaf old men”, and this name indicates their occupation. The last, tenth category, which did not have an exact age limit, included various sick and infirm people who still had a job. language before the empire. Women had a slightly different classification, but the principle remained the same.
Apparently, according to the age classification of the citizens of the empire, none of them was forgotten. But if from one category to another the citizen of the country of “sons of the Sun” passed gradually, then practically nobody could pass from a low standard of living to high. [four]
Every effort was made in the empire to prevent any social unrest. None of its citizens was bypassed while receiving the minimum that provided him with a basic existence. In peacetime, a healthy adult took care of his own needs.
However, the state took care of the elderly and the sick, widows and orphans, the crippled, and especially of war veterans. In addition, she did everything quite consistently, trying not to forget about anyone. Those who could not work had the right to receive everything necessary for life, ie basic food, clothing, footwear. from the funds of the empire, from its bins and barns, from the warehouses of handicrafts placed everywhere. Everyone’s standard of living was almost the same. Such “Indian socialism” is far from real. [four]
The common man was deprived of the right to decide his own destiny: the system of power, the branched state apparatus, still pressed a huge weight on the citizen and, like a terrible vampire, sucked juices from him, were imposed on him from above … The man had to do what he was told, and he really did everything perfectly. And then some try to draw a conclusion about the socialist nature of the state and society of the “sons of the sun.”
The social order in the Inca Empire was protected not only by the army and religion, but also by law. Although Inca laws were not written in writing, justice was based on precise and clear principles. These include, for example, the principle that a criminal offense committed by an elite member was classified as a more serious offense than that of an ordinary person. There was also the following principle: if the crime was committed not on the initiative of the offender, but on the instructions of another person, the initiator of the violation of the law was subject to punishment, and not the offender himself.
Judges usually handed down rather harsh sentences (the death penalty, imprisonment in “death chambers” infested with poisonous snakes and predators, torture, flogging, exile, public disgrace, etc.), https://123helpme.me/animal-farm/ because any offense, even a minor one, regarded by the rulers and rulers of the state, who were the sole legislators, as an attempt on the sacred, inviolable foundations of the empire, as a threat to its inner peace. The laws of the Incas were very effective, the rule of law introduced by the “sons of the sun” was observed by almost everyone. [four]
The power of the rulers of the Inca Empire, in addition to the army and justice, also relied on religion. Religious views, like religion itself, of course, were not the product of the Incas. Worship of the Sun in Deru and everything connected with its cult has its roots in Doin history. The Incas only adapted the religious ideas of their predecessors to their own goals.
According to their religious views, the sun occupied the main position among the gods and ruled the entire terrestrial world, and therefore the “sons of the sun”, ie the rulers of Cuzco, were essentially called to control the course of life on earth. From this it logically followed that the order established by the “sons of the Sun” was sacred at least because it was sanctified by the divine origin of the rulers of the four corners of the world. [four]
The heliocentric religion of the Incas, in which Inti, the sun god, was elevated to the rank of chief god, was the official faith, the state ideology of their empire. It became an effective means of subjugation, a spiritual conquist in relation to other South American peoples, whom the Incas considered barbarians because they did not worship the sun. It is no coincidence that the national temple in Korikanchu was dedicated from the beginning to the god Inti, its main shrine was decorated with a gold disk. This disk was directed to the east so that it was touched by the first rays of the rising sun.
In the sanctuary of Korykancha, near the image of the sun god, as well as rounded images of other gods on thrones made of pure gold, the mummies of the dead Incas. Here was the throne at the time of the reigning Inca, he sat on it during the festivals dedicated to the Inca. Among all the identified attractions, Cusco Coricancha occupies an absolutely exceptional place. Adjacent to it was the Inca Garden, which was a real miracle of miracles in the land of four countries.
The garden we are talking about was rightly considered golden, because everything that grew in it flourished, everything that “inhabited” it was made of pure gold, which for the Incas was a symbol of the heavenly Father, a symbol of the great Sun. Everything that the inhabitants of the Sun Empire observed around them was recreated in this garden of gold: patches of Peruvian deer, maize, the immature cobs of which were woven, of silver, wire, herds of llamas with their children, then – two dozen Indian shepherds, and also stately Indian girls who, like Eve in paradise, plucked golden fruit from golden apple trees.
Nearby were other trees and bushes made of gold, on the branches of which sat the golden birds of Peru. Golden snakes crawled on the ground with eyes made of dark precious stones, on which butterflies sat or golden beetles scurried. The Golden Garden in Cusco was the most fantastic work ever created by human culture. This unique creation of the Incas aroused admiration not only for the unprecedented value of processed gold, but, more importantly, the outstanding artistic skill of its creators. [four]
Cusco’s golden wealth reached its apogee during the reign of Wayne Capac (early 16th century). This Inca covers with gold not only the walls of his own palaces and the walls of the temples of the heavenly father – literally the whole city is covered with gold.